This is the least intensive stage of editing, ideally the final stage after copyediting and structural editing. Note that we will assess your manuscript before offering this service. If we establish that your document has jumped another stage of editing, we will advise you to consider such stage first. It is of no use to provide proofreading services to a document riddled with inherent grammatical errors, mainly of stylistic nature such as dangling modifiers, misplaced modifiers, pronoun-antecedent disagreements, subject-verb disagreements, and other logical issues (both global and local).
This stage of editing is also in line with standards for proofreading set by Editors Canada.
Standards for Proofreading
Proofreading is examining material after layout to correct errors in textual and visual
1. We adhere to the editorial style sheet for the material and update it, if necessary. If no
style sheet is provided, we will use ours.
2. At first-proof stage, we read the material word by word, comparing with previous
copy if supplied.
1. We ensure that the first proof contains all the elements in the copy prepared for layout
(e.g., all paragraphs, visual elements, headings).
2. Identify and correct typographical and formatting errors, paying special attention
to problematic areas (e.g., spelling of proper names and non-English words;
accuracy of numbers, tables, and figures).
3. Check consistency and accuracy of elements in the material (e.g., crossreferences,
running heads, captions, titles of web windows, hyperlinks, metadata).
4. Check end-of-line word divisions and mark bad breaks for correction.
5. Understand design specifications and ensure that they have been followed
throughout (e.g., by checking alignment, type size and style, line length, space
around major elements, rules, use of colour, appearance of hyperlinks).
Professional Editorial Standards 13 Revised 2009
6. Recognize typographical and formatting irregularities (e.g., widows and orphans,
overly ragged edges, ill-fitting text, incorrect text colour) and suggest adjustments
to eliminate them.
1. Flag matters that may affect later stages of production (e.g., page cross references;
placement of art; alterations that will change layout, indexing, or web
2. Query, or correct if authorized to do so, inconsistencies (e.g., in spelling,
punctuation, fact, visual elements, navigation elements, metadata, other content
that may not appear on a published web page). Use judgment about the degree to
which such queries and corrections are called for.
3. Incorporate alterations from authors and other individuals, using judgment and
tact. Where comments conflict, use judgment to mark appropriate alterations.
4. Choose from among various options the changes at each stage of proofreading
that will prove the least costly or the most appropriate, given the production
process, schedule, medium, desired quality, and type of publication (e.g., in an
advertising flyer, pricing errors must be corrected no matter what the stage).